Mac下kubernetes初体验 有更新!

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背景

前面一篇文章讲了背景,本文只记录一下使用方法。

初体验

安装 minikube

brew cask install minikube
$ minikube version
minikube version: v1.3.0
commit: 43969594266d77b555a207b0f3e9b3fa1dc92b1f
$ minikube status
host: Running
kubelet: Running
apiserver: Running
kubectl: Correctly Configured: pointing to minikube-vm at 192.168.99.100

部署一个app

k8s版本

$ kubectl version
Client Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"13", GitVersion:"v1.13.2", GitCommit:"cff46ab41ff0bb44d8584413b598ad8360ec1def", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2019-01-13T23:15:13Z", GoVersion:"go1.11.4", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"darwin/amd64"}
Server Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"15", GitVersion:"v1.15.2", GitCommit:"f6278300bebbb750328ac16ee6dd3aa7d3549568", GitTreeState:"clean", BuildDate:"2019-08-05T09:15:22Z", GoVersion:"go1.12.5", Compiler:"gc", Platform:"linux/amd64"}

查看节点

$ kubectl get nodes
NAME       STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
minikube   Ready    master   16m   v1.15.2

部署

$ kubectl run kubernetes-bootcamp --image=gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1 --port=8080
kubectl run --generator=deployment/apps.v1 is DEPRECATED and will be removed in a future version. Use kubectl run --generator=run-pod/v1 or kubectl create instead.
deployment.apps/kubernetes-bootcamp created

或者

$ kubectl run kubernetes-bootcamp --image=docker.io/jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1 --port=8080

确认部署状态

$ kubectl get deployments
NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   1/1     1            1           68s

启动proxy

$ kubectl proxy
Starting to serve on 127.0.0.1:8001

请求服务

$ curl "localhost:8001/version"
{
  "major": "1",
  "minor": "15",
  "gitVersion": "v1.15.2",
  "gitCommit": "f6278300bebbb750328ac16ee6dd3aa7d3549568",
  "gitTreeState": "clean",
  "buildDate": "2019-08-05T09:15:22Z",
  "goVersion": "go1.12.5",
  "compiler": "gc",
  "platform": "linux/amd64"
}

查看pods

 kubectl get pods
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts   1/1     Running   0          14m

请求pods

k8s为每一个pod创建了一个可访问的url,如:

curl "localhost:8001/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts/proxy/"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts | v=1

与APP交互

get pods

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-skkhw   1/1     Running   0          6s

describe pods

$ kubectl describe pods
Name:           kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-skkhw
Namespace:      default
Priority:       0
Node:           minikube/172.17.0.88
Start Time:     Fri, 09 Aug 2019 09:23:05 +0000
Labels:         pod-template-hash=5b48cfdcbd
                run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Annotations:    <none>
Status:         Running
IP:             172.18.0.3
Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd
Containers:
  kubernetes-bootcamp:
    Container ID:   docker://9bb852fc86507d3094bffec47cfbb8035b836d28adb6682c8b8fa5c834e68494
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af
    Port:           8080/TCP
    Host Port:      0/TCP
    State:          Running
      Started:      Fri, 09 Aug 2019 09:23:08 +0000
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-5z4wd (ro)
Conditions:
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True
  Ready             True
  ContainersReady   True
  PodScheduled      True
Volumes:
  default-token-5z4wd:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-5z4wd
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
Events:
  Type    Reason     Age   From               Message
  ----    ------     ----  ----               -------
  Normal  Scheduled  42s   default-scheduler  Successfully assigned default/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-skkhw to minikube
  Normal  Pulled     39s   kubelet, minikube  Container image "gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1" already present on machine
  Normal  Created    39s   kubelet, minikube  Created container kubernetes-bootcamp
  Normal  Started    39s   kubelet, minikube  Started container kubernetes-bootcamp

查看容器日志

$ kubectl logs kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts
Kubernetes Bootcamp App Started At: 2019-08-09T08:42:11.232Z | Running On:  kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts

Running On: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts | Total Requests: 1 | App Uptime: 699.441 seconds | Log Time: 2019-08-09T08:53:50.673Z
Running On: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts | Total Requests: 2 | App Uptime: 818.769 seconds | Log Time: 2019-08-09T08:55:50.001Z

在容器中执行命令

单次执行

$ kubectl exec kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts env
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
HOSTNAME=kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts
KUBERNETES_PORT_443_TCP_ADDR=10.96.0.1
KUBERNETES_SERVICE_HOST=10.96.0.1
KUBERNETES_SERVICE_PORT=443
KUBERNETES_SERVICE_PORT_HTTPS=443
KUBERNETES_PORT=tcp://10.96.0.1:443
KUBERNETES_PORT_443_TCP=tcp://10.96.0.1:443
KUBERNETES_PORT_443_TCP_PROTO=tcp
KUBERNETES_PORT_443_TCP_PORT=443
NPM_CONFIG_LOGLEVEL=info
NODE_VERSION=6.3.1
HOME=/root

交互式的shell

$ kubectl exec -it kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-5lbts bash

通过 Service ip 来暴露 Pods服务

查看pods

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-9rwwr   1/1     Running   0          5s

查看services

$ kubectl get services
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1    <none>        443/TCP   19s

通过service暴露服务

将容器的8080端口暴露出去

$ kubectl expose deployment/kubernetes-bootcamp --type="NodePort" --port 8080
service/kubernetes-bootcamp exposed

查找暴露出来的端口号

$ kubectl get services
NAME                  TYPE        CLUSTER-IP    EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
kubernetes            ClusterIP   10.96.0.1     <none>        443/TCP          116s
kubernetes-bootcamp   NodePort    10.97.58.53   <none>        8080:30797/TCP   4s

查看 minikube的ip地址

$ minikube ip
172.17.0.89

直接访问对应的资源

$ curl "172.17.0.89:30797"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-9rwwr | v=1

通过 Service labels 来暴露 Pods服务

查看label

deployment会自动为Pod创建一个label,可以通过 describe deployment命令来查看。

$ kubectl describe deployment
Name:                   kubernetes-bootcamp
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Fri, 09 Aug 2019 11:34:58 +0000
Labels:                 run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision: 1
Selector:               run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Replicas:               1 desired | 1 updated | 1 total | 1 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  run=kubernetes-bootcamp
  Containers:
   kubernetes-bootcamp:
    Image:        gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Port:         8080/TCP
    Host Port:    0/TCP
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
  Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd (1/1 replicas created)
Events:
  Type    Reason             Age   From                   Message
  ----    ------             ----  ----                   -------
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  12m   deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd to 1

可见:Labels: run=kubernetes-bootcamp

根据label查看nodes

$ kubectl get pods -l  run=kubernetes-bootcamp
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn   1/1     Running   0          13m

根据label查看services

$ kubectl get services -l run=kubernetes-bootcamp
NAME                  TYPE       CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)          AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   NodePort   10.97.218.44   <none>        8080:31523/TCP   6m57s

给pod上的app做label

给name为 kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn的pod做label,label名称为v1

$ kubectl label pod kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn  app=v1
pod/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn labeled

确认一下label打上了

$ kubectl describe pods kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn
Name:           kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn
Namespace:      default
Priority:       0
Node:           minikube/172.17.0.36
Start Time:     Fri, 09 Aug 2019 11:35:06 +0000
Labels:         app=v1
                pod-template-hash=5b48cfdcbd
                run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Annotations:    <none>
Status:         Running
IP:             172.18.0.4
Controlled By:  ReplicaSet/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd
Containers:
  kubernetes-bootcamp:
    Container ID:   docker://7aad4132a5b16346903e902491136c6107801cdec6a1b647b2c3dc76f7f70fe9
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af
    Port:           8080/TCP
    Host Port:      0/TCP
    State:          Running
      Started:      Fri, 09 Aug 2019 11:35:08 +0000
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
    Mounts:
      /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-6l7s5 (ro)
Conditions:
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True
  Ready             True
  ContainersReady   True
  PodScheduled      True
Volumes:
  default-token-6l7s5:
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-6l7s5
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations:     node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute for 300s
                 node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute for 300s
Events:
  Type    Reason     Age   From               Message
  ----    ------     ----  ----               -------
  Normal  Scheduled  19m   default-scheduler  Successfully assigned default/kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn to minikube
  Normal  Pulled     19m   kubelet, minikube  Container image "gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1" already present on machine
  Normal  Created    19m   kubelet, minikube  Created container kubernetes-bootcamp
  Normal  Started    19m   kubelet, minikube  Started container kubernetes-bootcamp

根据label查看资源

$ kubectl get pods -l app=v1
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6cmnn   1/1     Running   0          20m

删除 Service

$ kubectl delete service -l run=kubernetes-bootcamp
service "kubernetes-bootcamp" deleted

确认删除成功

$ kubectl get services
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.96.0.1    <none>        443/TCP   23m

再次确认删除成功

$ curl 172.17.0.36:31523
curl: (7) Failed to connect to 172.17.0.36 port 31523: Connection refused

服务的扩容

查看现有deployment

$ kubectl get deployments
NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   1/1     1            1           4m18s

目前1/1表示当前为1台,预期也为1台。

扩容

$ kubectl scale deployments/kubernetes-bootcamp --replicas=4
deployment.extensions/kubernetes-bootcamp scaled

确认扩容成功

$ kubectl get deployments
NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   4/4     4            4           5m54s

查看新的Pods

$ kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP  NODE       NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-2h5kn   1/1     Running   0          3m27s   172.18.0.7  minikube   <none>           <none>
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6sjtp   1/1     Running   0          3m27s   172.18.0.6  minikube   <none>           <none>
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-mz2hx   1/1     Running   0          3m27s   172.18.0.8  minikube   <none>           <none>
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-z98rx   1/1     Running   0          8m24s   172.18.0.4  minikube   <none>           <none>

查看 deployment 事件日志

从deployment事件日志中,可以看到刚才的操作过程。

$ kubectl describe deployments/kubernetes-bootcamp
Name:                   kubernetes-bootcamp
Namespace:              default
CreationTimestamp:      Fri, 09 Aug 2019 12:05:53 +0000
Labels:                 run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Annotations:            deployment.kubernetes.io/revision: 1
Selector:               run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Replicas:               4 desired | 4 updated | 4 total | 4 available | 0 unavailable
StrategyType:           RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds:        0
RollingUpdateStrategy:  25% max unavailable, 25% max surge
Pod Template:
  Labels:  run=kubernetes-bootcamp
  Containers:
   kubernetes-bootcamp:
    Image:        gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Port:         8080/TCP
    Host Port:    0/TCP
    Environment:  <none>
    Mounts:       <none>
  Volumes:        <none>
Conditions:
  Type           Status  Reason
  ----           ------  ------
  Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
  Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
OldReplicaSets:  <none>
NewReplicaSet:   kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd (4/4 replicas created)
Events:
  Type    Reason             Age    From                   Message
  ----    ------             ----   ----                   -------
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  10m    deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd to 1
  Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  5m41s  deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd to 4

从最后一行中,可见扩容至了4个节点。

负载均衡的配置

查看服务的IP和Port

$ kubectl describe services/kubernetes-bootcamp
Name:                     kubernetes-bootcamp
Namespace:                default
Labels:                   run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Annotations:              <none>
Selector:                 run=kubernetes-bootcamp
Type:                     NodePort
IP:                       10.97.81.186
Port:                     <unset>  8080/TCP
TargetPort:               8080/TCP
NodePort:                 <unset>  30674/TCP
Endpoints:                172.18.0.4:8080,172.18.0.6:8080,172.18.0.7:8080 + 1 more...
Session Affinity:         None
External Traffic Policy:  Cluster
Events:                   <none>

不停的调用curl,发现运行的节点不同。

$ curl "172.17.0.15:30674"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-mz2hx | v=1
$ curl "172.17.0.15:30674"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-mz2hx | v=1
$ curl "172.17.0.15:30674"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6sjtp | v=1
$ curl "172.17.0.15:30674"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-2h5kn | v=1
$ curl "172.17.0.15:30674"
Hello Kubernetes bootcamp! | Running on: kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6sjtp | v=1

下线缩容机器

缩容到两台机器

$ kubectl scale deployments/kubernetes-bootcamp --replicas=2
deployment.extensions/kubernetes-bootcamp scaled

查看新的deployments

$ kubectl get deployments
NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   2/2     2            2           17m

查看pods情况

$ kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IPNODE       NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-6sjtp   1/1     Running   0          12m   172.18.0.6minikube   <none>           <none>
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-z98rx   1/1     Running   0          17m   172.18.0.4minikube   <none>           <none>

升级App

查看当前deployment

$ kubectl get deployments
NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp   4/4     4            4           93s

查看当前pods

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-2hzs6   1/1     Running   0          2m5s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-9x72m   1/1     Running   0          2m5s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-t8whf   1/1     Running   0          2m5s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-whdb6   1/1     Running   0          2m5s

查看当前pod镜像版本

$ kubectl describe pods | grep Image
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af
    Image:          gcr.io/google-samples/kubernetes-bootcamp:v1
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp@sha256:0d6b8ee63bb57c5f5b6156f446b3bc3b3c143d233037f3a2f00e279c8fcc64af

更新镜像版本

告知 deployments去更新镜像

$ kubectl set image deployments/kubernetes-bootcamp kubernetes-bootcamp=jocatalin/kubernetes-bootcamp:v2
deployment.extensions/kubernetes-bootcamp image updated

查看当前的pods状态

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                   READY   STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-2hzs6   1/1     Terminating   0          6m26s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-9x72m   1/1     Terminating   0          6m26s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-t8whf   1/1     Terminating   0          6m26s
kubernetes-bootcamp-5b48cfdcbd-whdb6   1/1     Terminating   0          6m26s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-2sr4g     1/1     Running       0          20s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-6z79p     1/1     Running       0          20s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-95zk2     1/1     Running       0          18s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-h26sn     1/1     Running       0          18s

再查看一次pods状态

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-2sr4g   1/1     Running   0          54s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-6z79p   1/1     Running   0          54skubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-95zk2   1/1     Running   0          52s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-h26sn   1/1     Running   0          52s

查看pods的镜像版本

$ kubectl get pods
NAME                                 READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-2sr4g   1/1     Running   0          54s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-6z79p   1/1     Running   0          54skubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-95zk2   1/1     Running   0          52s
kubernetes-bootcamp-cfc74666-h26sn   1/1     Running   0          52s

参考

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